Saturday, January 18, 2020

Human Development Essay

Taking a look at the Human Development Index map of Africa, which can be seen on (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index) on the web; it shows that many of Africa’s countries are very underdeveloped.7 One of the obvious reasons for why countries is Africa are underachieving is because of how poor is the strength of their economy compared to others. As it is well known, Africa is very rich in mineral resources as many other states rely upon their, possessing most of the known minerals types of the world. Africa’s economy is more reliant on agriculture than that of any other continent, with around 60% of Africans working in the agricultural sector. Secondly, the economic development of virtually all African nations has been hindered by inadequate transportation systems. Most countries rely on road networks that are composed largely of dirt roads, which become impassable during the rainy seasons. Road networks tend to link the interior of a country to the coast; few road systems link adjacent countries.9 To show how poor and how bad economy crisis is in Africa, one ought to take a look at their food crisis and the growing volume of food imports. Whereas Africa imported an average volume of 1.96 million metric tons of agricultural products in the years 1961-63, by 1980-82 this figure had risen to 11.2 million metric tons at an annual value of over $6.8 billion (over one-seventh of the total value of Africa’s imports in 1982).Owing to foreign exchange constraints, most African countries have had to rely increasingly on food aid to meet their imported food requirements.10 The commercial sectors of most African states rely heavily on one or a few export commodities. The bulk of trade occurs with industrialized nations, which require raw materials and sell industrial and consumer goods. Trade between African states is limited by the competitive, rather than complementary, nature of their products and by trade barriers, such as tariffs, and the diversity of currencies. Looking at the economy of Europe, a sharp contrast in strength and influence can visibly be seen. Europe has long been a world leader in economic activities. As the birthplace of modern science and of the Industrial Revolution, Europe acquired technological superiority over the rest of the world, which gave it unquestioned dominance in the 19th Century. An important impetus for growth since the mid-20th Century has been the formation of supranational organisations such as the European Union, the European Free Trade Association, and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unlike Africa, Europe has highly developed transport systems, which are densest in the central part of the continent. Many countries in Europe use well maintained transportation systems to transport important goods such as water transport which plays a major role in the European economy. Almost all European countries maintain national airlines, and several, such as Air France, British Airways, Swissair, Germany, and Netherlands are major worldwide carriers.13 Looking at both economies and trade, it is unquestionably obvious that Europe conducts substantial international trade compared to Africa. For Europe, much of its trade is intra-continental, especially among members of the European Union, but also engages in large-scale trade with countries of other continents. Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands are among the world’s greatest trading nations. A large portion of European inter-continental trade involves the exporting of manufactured goods and the imp orting of raw materials. Europe’s agricultural sector is generally highly developed, especially in Western Europe. The agricultural sector in Europe is helped by the Common Agricultural Policy, which provides farmers with a minimal price for their products and subsidized their exports, which increases competitiveness for their products. This policy is highly controversial as it hampers free trade worldwide (protectionism sparks protectionism from other countries and trade blocs: the concept of trade wars) and is violating the concept of ‘fair trade’.15 Africa’s economy is more reliant on primary products (i.e, agricultural and mineral) than that of any other continent, with around 60% of Africans working in the agricultural sector. About three fifths of African farmers are subsistence farmers tilling small pots of land to feed their families, with only a minimal surplus that can be sold for other goods.16 However, there are significant number of large farms that grow cash crop such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and rubber; these farms, normally operated by large corporations, cover tens of square kilometres and employ large number of labourers. Africa’s geography is unsuited to trade and thus hampers its economy. The centre of the continent, at least on the western side, is an almost impenetrable rainforest that greatly impedes the transit of people of goods. Some of the wealthiest parts of South Africa are blocked from the rest of Africa by the Kalahari Desert, while the Sahara creates an obvious barrier to trade. While Africa has a number of great river systems such as those of the Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi, it is not nearly as well-linked rivers as are other areas such as Europe. Moreover, many of the rivers are blocked by rapids and cataracts that require vast development projects if they are to be bypassed. The wetness of the roads and tracks makes transport difficult and hazardous. In addition Africa is cut off from the sea to a greater extent than any other continent. To enforce even more problems to Africa; there is an increasing amount of desertification occurring in Africa where the deserts, especially the Sahara are becoming larger, enveloping area around them, leaving less space for land. This process is partly due to the deforestation of areas of forest; with no roots to hold soil in place, it blows away leaving an infertile desert. Europe has a well developed financial sector. Many European cities are financial centres with the City of London being the largest.19 The European financial sector is helped by the introduction of the euro as common currency. This has made it easier for European households and firms to invest in companies and deposit on banks in other European countries as exchange rate fluctuations are now non-existent in Europe. As mentioned above, Europe’s economy is superior to that of Africa, so what can Africa do to improve it’s economy or perhaps what can it take from the Europe economy as a model. Professor J A. van Ginkel held a conference on the ‘Knowledge and Development in Africa’; here he talked about ways to improve Africa’s economy however not only by getting the economic policies right.20 Prof van Ginkel mentions that there is now substantial evidence that institutional weakness in many African countries is a critical obstacle to economic performance.21 From the surveys he conducted on the obstacles to business in Africa it highlights the damage caused by: the unpredictability of changes in laws and policies, the unreliability of law enforcement, and the impact of corrupt bureaucracies.22 Unless governments eliminate these kinds of obstacles then it is unlikely that the economy whether it is just locally in certain parts of Africa or on a national front will flourish. An aspect of the Europe model that Africa can learn from is the aspect of knowledge. No commodity is more expensive than â€Å"knowledge†. An Africa without a sustainable, strong knowledge sector of its own will always remain in a dangerously dependent position. Research and training institutions on the continent can make a critical contribution in at least three ways: by making the most of existing indigenous knowledge; by accessing the vast reservoir of existing global knowledge, as well as the ongoing advances in understanding, and adapting them to suit specific local conditions; and by helping to find innovative solutions to seemingly intractable problems.23 In terms of human resources, it was highlighted in the ‘Seminars of Anticipation’ that African developments suffers from a tragic paradox: on the one hand, elites trained in Western world are too many (and most of them stay in the US or in the EU because they cannot find well-paid qualified positions in Af rica, or because their skills do not correspond to African needs); while on the other hand the well-trained intermediate executives required to manage a modern economy are cruelly missing in Africa (higher technical experts, management executives, civil administrators†¦). To conclude, this essay has looked the economies of both Europe and Africa and compared and contrast both of them. It has also provided information about both economies in terms of trade and finance. A brief history was provided which looked at the relationship between Europe and Africa and to the days of ‘colonisation’. Reasons as to why both regions are on different levels economically were provided to show how dominant and rich Europe was and how poor and underdeveloped Africa was. The Africa food crisis was mentioned to give an account of how poor Africa was against other regions. In addition ways that Africa can improve their economy thus bringing it more power and strength so that it can compete with other regions was provided, for example making sure Africa had the aqeduate education so that it learn. Many Africans move to the west so that they can have higher education which is not available in Africa and tend to stay there once they have completed their studies. This is detrimental to Africa’s development and thus a solution to the problem would be to support the creation of a complete curriculum. This would lead to a massive contribution to the development of vocational and technical education in Africa thus improving Africa’s economy. So as it can seen, the economies for both Europe and Africa are at this present time in contrast to each other but there is hope for Africa to become more dominant and influential in world affairs if the correct adjustments and policies are introduced to improve them. References Fawcett, L., & Hurrell, A., Regionalism in World Politics, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995, pg 43  Ravenhill. J, Africa in economic crisis, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1986, pg 9  www.ciaonet.org/isa/rajo  

Friday, January 10, 2020

Learning Team Reflection Essay

There are several factors to consider when contemplating a potential lawsuit or settlement. As a person who is not trained in the law, it is important to seek counsel before making any decisions. Counsel can provide professional guidance in a field that a victim may be unfamiliar with. To attempt to navigate though the legal system without professional help would be confusing and frustrating. There are alternatives to litigation that some people may not be aware of. A professional in the law can give guidance and perspective as to which is the best route to take. One must consider the time involved in litigation. Cheeseman (2010) stated, â€Å"A trial can last less than one day to many months, depending on the type and complexity of the case† (p. 41). Also, a consideration must be the costs involved. It can be extremely costly to obtain counsel, although it may be wise to invest in legal representation. Counsel will be able to provide you the statue of limitations so that you know how long you are eligible to seek damages. Additionally, counsel will provide you realistic picture of the benefits and/or risks of going to trial or settling. Counsel would be able to explain the intricacies regarding a trial and provide a relative timeframe. Most people are unaware of the details and involvement of going to trial. In many cases it is in the best interest of both the injured party and the accused to seek a resolution outside of court. According to Cheeseman (2010), â€Å"More than 95 percent of all cases are settled before they go to trial† (p. 40). A victim may feel compelled to go to court, when counsel may know that a trial may not provide a favorable outcome. Counsel would need to be available as already discussed to decide whether litigation is the way to go. Once the decision had been made to pursue the issue legally, the appropriate legal representation would have to be found. The type of counsel would depend on the type of case. There are several specialties in law and finding the best person to represent you is crucial. You would not ask a lawyer that specializes in real estate to represent you in a wrongful death suit. If possible, legal representation should be made available before the decision to seek legal action is decided on. A lawyer is there to provide professional advice, but they cannot force you to make a decision one way or the other. Two main intentional torts that should seek council especially if there were bodily injury to the person or persons are assault and battery. Cheeseman (2010) stated, â€Å"Assault is (1) the threat of immediate harm or offensive contact or (2) any action that arouses reasonable apprehensio n of imminent harm† (p. 75). The threat to the life of an individual or offensive contact are two very good reasons to seek counsel for either monetary charges such as paying medical bills from the harmful contact or seeking restraining orders to prevent such contact form occurring. Cheeseman (2010) stated, â€Å"Battery is unauthorized and harmful or offensive physical contact with another person that causes injury. Basically, the interest protected here is each person’s reasonable sense of dignity and safety† (p 75). The other tort situation that should seek legal counsel are strict or product liability cases. Cheeseman (2010) stated, â€Å"That is, a participant in a covered activity will be held liable for any injuries caused by the activity, even if he or she was not negligent† (p. 89). To clarify further Cheeseman (2010) stated, â€Å"This doctrine holds that (1) there are certain activities that can place the public at risk of injury even if reasonable care is taken and (2) the public should have some means of compensation if such injury occurs† (p. 89). These cases either involve wrongdoing to the individual that usually ends in harm or death. If a product malfunctions which hurts the consumer or shorts out and the consumer dies are both reasons legal counsel should be involved. Again, legal counsel should specialize in the area that you need representing and the monetary costs of acquiring counsel should be researched before hiring them to represent your case. Seeking legal council is prudent in helping a victim understand their choices. There are situations when there is not enough evidence or legal grounds for any form of legal action, and legal council can provide that information. The proper and professional legal guidance can help a victim recover losses and damages. References: Cheeseman, H. R. (2010). Business law: Legal environment, online commerce, business ethics, and international issues (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Huckleberry Finn American Literature Essay - 1373 Words

American literature is a piece literary of work during and after the formation of the United States that is not only written by American authors, but is influenced and reflects on the nation’s past and truths (good or bad), values, ideology, or traditions. A prime example of American literature is Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. He exposes and reflects on the truth about slavery and racism during the 1870s, proves how Huck s view has been formed society, includes American characteristics, and how slavery and racism is a part of America’s past and present. American literature is not only written by American authors, but is influenced and reflects on the nation’s past and truths, whether good or bad. sAdventures of†¦show more content†¦This shows how Huck learns to accept slaves as human and equal, just as the United States as a whole later did. This is something that is a part of our American past, which puts it under the American Literatur e. During this time period, slavery was very common and was not seen as bad as it is looked at today. Huck was taught that slaves are property, not human. This is why a large portion of scotty accepts slavery and practice it, especially in the South. Twain agrees with the Northern states on the fact that slavery is an unacceptable practice and brings awareness through the novel. That is what makes it American. Twain writes and describes about the flaws in the United States. American literature includes what the Americans beliefs are, and Twain includes that and comments on it. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has many characteristics that fall under American literature. Some of these characteristics include author’s birth, content, and values written about. This novel has an American author. Mark Twain was born in the United States. He was born in 1835 in Florida. Twain writes about the United States and includes its conditions. He writes how the United States viewed slavery an d each other, through the eyes of Huck. Twain writes how Jim was treated the the white men and how he was viewed as different and inferior. He also writes with American English language and uses AmericanShow MoreRelatedThe Relationship Between Trilling, And Huckleberry Finn By Leo Marx1315 Words   |  6 PagesFrom Mr. Eliot, Mr. Trilling, and Huckleberry Finn by Leo Marx In this essay, Leo Marx is talking about how the ending of the story in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is not well connected to the whole meaning of the events that happens throughout the story. He is saying that the ending of the story throws out completely the plot. Marx is explaining how interesting was the journey that Huck and Jim had, searching for Jim s freedom, but to him everything what they did to get Jim out of thisRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1164 Words   |  5 PagesSkeleton Literature March 2, 2016 Research Paper In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain writes about the events in Huckleberry Finn’s life and the people around him. Huckleberry Finn tells the tale of life in the nineteenth century through the eyes of a 14-year-old boy struggling to find his place in this society. Throughout the story Huck deals with several moral issues; such as slavery, his distrust of society, and social order. In this essay I will discuss moral issues that Huck Finn facesRead MoreMark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn1575 Words   |  6 Pages Mark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Controversy Mark Twain, born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, is a highly recognizable figure in American literature. Born in Florida, Missouri Mark Twain and his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri where Twain discovered and fell in love with the mighty Mississippi River. The river and his life in Hannibal became his inspiration and guiding light in most of his writing. Although Twain loved the river and did a great deal of traveling, he eventuallyRead MoreThe North And South Fought The Civil War811 Words   |  4 PagesAmerica, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: Compare and contrast the reasons why the North and South fought the Civil War. You turn on the computer and type out the following: The North and South fought the Civil War for many reasons, some of which were the same and some different. This weak thesis restates the question without providing any additional information. You will expand on this new information in the body of the essay, but it is important that the reader know whereRead MoreHuck Finn Essay768 Words   |  4 PagesHuck Finn Essay Question: Should the word â€Å"nigger† be censored and replaced with the word â€Å"slave† in the newly published editions of Huck Finn? Defend or Reject claim Ernest Hemingway once said, â€Å"all modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain, called Huckleberry Finn:† However, Huck Finn has had its share of controversy. There has been an ongoing debate to whether or not schools should continue to teach Huck Finn because of the obvious racial components and the constant use ofRead MoreHis Chains Are Gone : Jim s Been Set Free?950 Words   |  4 Pagesand a nostalgic obsession followed those years of mayhem and political turmoil. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is one novel that has continued to make its literary mark, always controversial, to the curiosity of pre-civil war years of slavery in the South. Huckleberry Finn is an excellent study on Jim’s treatment as a commentary of post-Reconstruction life for African Americans. Reconstruction programs failed to give economic and legal assistance to blacks struggling to find theirRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1035 Words   |  5 PagesAdventures of Huckleberry Finn, an inspiring and controversial novel by Mark Twain, took place decades before the Civil War, a critical time period in America, when slavery was legal and many political issues aroused. During the pre-Civil War era, America underwent a political transition from being undeveloped and agricultural into an industrialized stable nation. Even immediately after the Civil War, when Twain s novel was published, society s social, political, and economic aspects of the NorthRead MoreThe Theme of Self-Reliance in Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson821 Words   |  4 PagesThe Theme of Self-Reliance in Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson I will, in the following, discuss the theme of self-reliance in the above-mentioned texts. But what exactly is self-reliance? In his 1841 publication called Essays, Ralph Waldo Emerson includes an essay simply entitled Self-Reliance in which he states Trust thyself#8230;Great men have always done so and confided themselves childlike to the genius of their age#8230; . Self-reliance is thus defined as the ability to be your own masterRead MoreAmerican Experience in Huck Finn1737 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"All modern American Literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn..† claimed Ernest Hemingway, a American author and journalist. This quote represents the idea and perception of Huckleberry Finn as a defining moment in American Literature, a time when a new culture was being formed west of the Atlantic that had many different subjects and characteristics than that of the literature in Europe. What makes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn so original and such a representationRead MoreHuckleberry Finn and the use of Satire Essay1109 Words   |  5 Pages Huck Finn and the use of Satire Mark Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been controversial ever since its release in 1884. It has been called everything from the root of modern American literature to a piece of racist trash. Many scholars have argued about Huck Finn being prejudiced. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain uses satire to mock many different aspects of the modern world. Despite the fact that many critics have accused Mark Twain’s novel of promoting racism

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Questions On Devaluation Of Theu.s Dollar - 922 Words

Issue: Devaluation of the U.S dollar Argument: America needs to go back to the Gold standard to prevent the devaluation and collapse of our current fiat based currency system Intro a) Attention getter: In today’s money, 17 dollars was the equivalent to only 1 dollar in the 1940’s, that’s an inflation level well over 1000%. b) Thesis: The U.S government needs to revert back to the Gold standard because there are no controls on the government to prevent the devaluation and ultimate collapse of our currency system. c) Statement of Credibility: I am economics major and a personal investor in commodities, enforcing the need for me to have a diverse understanding of economic policies. d) Preview of body points: a. 1st body point: devaluation, controversies surrounding fiat and gold systems. b. 2nd body point: government printing problem, why government is responsible c. 3rd body point: a modified gold standard, transitioning, steps to take. Body Point #1: Problem/Controversy 1) Beginning topic: (The problem today is the) excessive printing which is devaluing the U.S currency. a) Problem i) The Dollar at one time had a stable valuation to Gold, under gold standard ii) The US Dollar is now a fiat currency iii) Inflation and Dollar devaluation is inevitable b) Controversy i) The Gold Standard strangles(inhibits) growth ii) The Gold Standard prevents recovery in hard economic times b) Quote: In the article From Constitutional to Fiat Money by Richard Timberlake, he indications

Monday, December 9, 2019

Airframe Structure Failure and Survivability free essay sample

There are many different variables that come into play during an aircraft accident. It is an investigators job to find out what caused the failure. Failure of an aircraft primary structure is ranked high on the list of risks aircrews would rather not face. Mechanical component failure which can lead to loss of control of the aircraft is not far behind. Another issue which must be addressed in any aircraft accident is the question and of crash survivability. Even if no one was injured the investigator must find out what worked and what didnt. If there were injuries, several questions should be asked. The chapters I will be covering will give the investigator a look into what causes structural failure, and how to determine crash survivability. An aircraft accident investigators job is to determine what caused the crash. Structural failure is a vital part of the investigation. The term structure failure means where the material fails to carry below it was intended to carry. A structure can fail in one of two general ways. One way is it can be fractured, which means broken into two or more pieces. Another way is when the structure shape is changed so that it can no longer carry its load. With this kind of failure, the structure is still in one piece. It could be bent, stretched, corroded, or so worn that it can no longer do its intended job. Over the next few pages, I will be going into detail about the different ways structures can fail. There are many reasons why an airplane structure can fail. As I have just gone over a few in the last paragraph, there are many different ways this can happen. In chapter 35, the book talks about overload. This is, when an in-flight load exceeds the weight the part was designed for. All structures to include bridges, buildings or airplanes are created to withstand only specific loads. It is unrealistic to assume that airplanes can be designed and built to withstand any conceivable load it can experience. If a structure is exposed to a load greater than which it was designed for, it will structurally fail. Be it deforming, or fracturing into two or more pieces. These are two general reasons why aircraft structures fail. Aircraft structures are designed to withstand loads generated by air at some maximum airspeed and the loads generated while maneuvering at some G load. Most aircraft can be flown at speeds and G loads which can place excessive loads on the aircraft structure. Aircraft that is directly exposed to onrushing air could be damaged as the dynamic pressure of the air stream is converted to static pressure pressing inward on the structure. Excessive speed can reduce the airplanes stability. The bottom line is that a lot of bad things can happen when an aircraft exceeds it’s redline airspeed. One of the clearest reasons for failure of a structural component is that the component lacked the proper strength to withstand the loads created while the aircraft is flown at its normal operating limits. There are numerous reasons why a structural component could be understrength. It is possible that the engineering of the structure was inadequate. The designer could have possibly made an error which was not caught during the testing phase. Another reason could be that wear and tear caused a weakening to the structure. Service life issues are normally divided into four sub areas; fatigue cracking, corrosion, wear and creep. The four of these progressive failures which cannot be undone as the aircraft accumulates flight hours ground-air-ground cycles. An aircraft structure can be weakened in a somewhat short period of time. Exposure to heat can greatly reduce a metals strength. For example, some aluminum alloys that are exposed to temperatures of 400Â ° for 5 minutes can reduce the alloys strength by 80%. Jet engine hot sections and compressor bleed airlines are made of materials such as stainless steel or titanium alloys which maintain most of their strength in relatively high temperatures. This problem happens when structure which is not been designed for high temperature is exposed to high temperatures. Some aircraft which can reach high supersonic speeds require the leading edge structures to be able to withstand the extremely high temperatures generated at these speeds. There are two general areas when it comes to aircraft structures. You have a primary structure, and a secondary structure. The primary structure is parts of the aircraft that are necessary to safely fly its mission. The following components are normally considered to be part of the primary structure: wing structure, fuselage structure carrying flight, ground and cabin pressurization loads, empennage, landing gear structure, engine mounts and supporting structure. The primary structures can be further sub categorized as either critical structure or principal structure elements. Critical elements are those whose failure would result in catastrophic failure of the aircraft. Principal elements are those that contribute significantly to carrying flight, ground and pressurization loads whose failure could or could not result in catastrophic failure. The following components are considered to be the secondary structure: aerodynamic fairings, tail cones, and landing gear doors. There are other mechanical components which carry flight critical loads. Even though these components have failure modes that are closely related to those exhibited by the primary and secondary structures, they do not fall into either of those categories. Components like hydraulic pressure lines, drive shafts, electric alternators, and gear teeth in transmissions all have modes of failure which can give clues concerning the nature of the loads which caused them to fail. In aircraft accident investigator will have a firm understanding of the loads that airplane structured caries and the physical evidence that these loads leaves behind when they fail. The many types of loads are vectors and have both magnitude and direction. You can change the load by either changing its magnitude, for example increasing or decreasing the pounds of force being applied, or by changing its direction by applying force upward instead of down. Loads can take a finite length of time to be imposed. Even though loads can be applied in a very short period of time they can be applied or changed instantaneously. The fact that loads take time to apply and or change is important for the accident investigator understand. The book separates loads into three general areas; static loads, dynamic loads, and repeated loads. Knowing the difference between the three types is important because the nature of the load has a lot to do with the failure of the structure and the evidence left behind. If a load were applied so slowly that the structure to which the load was being applied to stayed equal at all times the load would be considered a static load. A static load can be either for short or long period of time. A dynamic load happens when the loads are applied fast enough to prevent the structure from carrying the load while remaining in equilibrium as the load is being applied. Dynamic loads can be divided into two subcategories, sudden, and impact. A sudden load will impose stronger internal stresses in the structure. Components such as landing gear are tested with dynamic loads. Impact loads are applied at faster rates than sudden, causing the structure to fracture almost every time. Impact loads are usually limited to high-speed bird impacts and crash tests. Repeated loads are just like they sound, loads that are repeated over and over again. Due to the behavior of dynamic impacts and longtime static loads, it makes them unlikely candidates for repeated loads. Short time static and sudden dynamic loads can be repeated over and over again. If a component goes through lots of repeated load cycles before it fails due to fatigue cracking it is said to have experienced high cycle fatigue. By lots of cycles the book means hundreds of thousands or millions or tens of millions of cycles. One of the ways investigators look at structure failure is to consider the time it took for the failure to occur. If the failure happened at the instance of a single load, it is called an instantaneous failure. If the failure took a period of time to occur, that is called a progressive failure. If a structural component contained a load that caused significant distortion, but did not exceed the materials yield stress, and the structure springs back to its original shape after the load is removed is called an elastic deformation/distortion failure. Now if the same events occur and the structure does not spring back to its original shape after the load is removed, that is called plastic deformation/distortion. This is a permanent shape change, unlike the elastic which is a temporary shape change. Now if the load reaches the point where internal stresses not only cause significant plastic deformation, they exceed the materials ultimate stress, the structure will then fracture and separate into two or more pieces. This is called a fracture failure. An experienced investigator can tell the difference between the five different types of structural failure. Another form that causes structural failures is corrosion. Corrosion is the natural disintegration of material as it is attacked by one or more substances in its environment. During the refining process, energy is added to metal ores and other raw materials in order to produce the mechanical properties necessary in structural components. Mother Nature the great equalizer, doesnt like variances in energy levels and sets to work trying to bring the material back to the low energy levels existing in the products of corrosion. When it comes to aircraft structural components, mother natures attack will reduce the strength and ductility of components turning strong metals into meek metallic oxides, hydroxides or sulfates. If these compounds are not removed from the structure they can worsen the problem by providing an environment which is ever more favorable to continued corrosion. There are many different forms of corrosion. Some can be the result of a direct chemical attack by reactive substances in the environment. Pitting is a common form of corrosion. Small holes that are randomly located across the metal surface are called pits and sometimes may be accompanied with a powdery residue. Even though pits may appear to have damaged only a small percentage of the surface, they penetrate deeply in a branching matter causing loss of strength and ductility which is way out of proportion to metals surface appearance. Chemical corrosion involves the reaction between a metal structure and some chemical agent. If you introduce corrosive acid on a metal wing, the acid and the metal will react to form new and undesirable compounds. A selective attack is when corrosive actions seem to favor one part of the components or assembly above another. The primary type of selective attack is intergranular corrosion. This type of attack centers on the grain boundaries with in a metal component before consuming the grains themselves. Similar to pitting the damage from this kind of attack causes a loss of strength and ductility which is out of portion the amount of metal that is corroded. Another form intergranular corrosion is exfoliation, whose progress and go undetected until all structural integrity is lost. Grain boundaries attacked by this type of corrosion are normally flattened and or elongated grains of extruded or rolled metals. This type of corrosion can move undetected along the grain boundaries. Slow removal of material from the surface of the component by a mechanical action is referred to as wear. In most cases wear is undesirable, wear during break in on new or overhauled equipment is often a necessary ingredient in establishing proper operation and long service life. The type of wear the book talks about is the kind that leads to premature failure and breakdown. Abrasive wear happens when small abrasive particles cut into and remove material from surfaces of two components which are held together while moving. When this type of wear happens one question an investigator must ask is, where did the particles come from? Adhesive wear occurs when microscopic projections of the surfaces of the two components which are sliding across each other may contact, weld together and break off. A question that an investigator can ask is was the surface lubricated? Erosive wear is similar to abrasive wear in that foreign particles are cutting tiny chunks out of the surface. Its a little different from abrasive wear in that the abrasive particles gain their penetrating energy by a fluid that is carrying them along. How did the particles enter into the fluids is a question an investigator could pose. To prevent structure failure, the components go through an inspection called non-destructive inspection (NDI). NDI are inspection techniques which will not do significant harm to the object being inspected. Other names for this type of inspection is called non-destructive evaluation (NDE) or non-destructive testing (NDT). There are six specific techniques for these inspections. First, visual inspection is the simplest form and most common of the NDI process and uses your God-given gift of sight. To assist this type of inspection, illumination, magnification, and remote viewing are used to help. Another type is dye penetrant. This inspection is used to detect small surface cracks and discontinuities which may not be visible during strictly visual inspections. This technique is simple, but time-consuming. The component being inspected is covered with a colored liquid which is absorbed into surface cracks. The liquid includes a phosphorescent material which when exposed to ultraviolet light glows in the dark so small surface cracks are visible to the naked eye. Magnetic particle inspection provides another way to assist the eye by increasing the conspicuity of a surface crack. This process requires more specialized equipment then the dye penetrant process, it makes the crack even more obvious if properly used. This inspection makes use of the fact that when a magnetic field is induced in a component made of Ferro-magnetic material, surface cracks will alter the components magnetic field. When magnetic particles are placed on a magnetized surface it will align themselves along the magnetic field showing any variations caused by the cracks. If the magnetic particles are phosphorescent and viewed in a dark room under an ultraviolet light pattern around the cracks will be more visible. Eddy current is the first technique that is discussed that does not require direct viewing of the crack. This process involves the use of a probe to generate both an electromagnetic field and sense and evaluate the Eddy current generated in the material being inspected. When either or surface or near surface cracks are in the material it will alter the shape of the Eddy current and magnetic field it generates. This can be as simple as a twitch on a meters needle. The equipment needed for this type of inspection must be calibrated for the specific design being inspected and the size of the crack being search. Ultrasonic inspections make use of high-frequency sound to find surface and subsurface defects. The high-frequency sound waves are generated by a transducer and then beamed through the part being inspected. The reflective waves or the remnants of waves which penetrate the part are being measured with a receiver and electronically evaluated. There are two different ways the sound waves can be applied to and retrieved from the part being inspected; immersion of the part into a fluid which carries the sound waves to and from the part and direct contact inspection where the transducer and receiver are in direct contact with the part. The direct contact technique is much more mobile allowing use in the field of the aircraft or major fabrications. Radiographic inspection in its simplest form is not much different than that of an x-ray. Very short wave electromagnetic radiation are generated and directed through the part being inspected and towards unexposed radiographic film. Rays passing through cracks, flaws, voids and corroded areas will not be attenuated as much as raise passing through sound material. To the untrained eye, cracks, flaws, voids and corrosion may appear to be just another shadow on the film. Orientation of the x-rays so as to illuminate the discontinuities and proper interpretation of the film are therefore important aspects in ensuring the thoroughness of the inspection. One of the issues which must be addressed in any aircraft accident is a question of crash survivability. Even if no one was injured, the question of what worked and what didnt work should always be asked. Did the restraint systems operate as designed? Whether or not escape hatches were needed, could they have been opened if needed? Did the emergency lighting system work? How crash survival equipment is designed is based on experience, history, and sound engineering judgment. To know if these components work correctly design requires an accident for verification. The accident is a chance to validate our judgment and we cannot afford to pass it up. To make investigation of aircraft crashes a little easier requires a systematic approach by breaking down a complicated series of events into smaller, more digestible bites. The approach chapter 36 goes over is the CREEP method. CREEP stands for: Container, Restraint, Energy absorption, Environment, and Post-crash factors. The first four of the five CREEP elements relate to the dynamic portion of the crash itself. These four factors are concerned with the initial and any subsequent impacts with the terrain, the associated deceleration forces acting on the aircraft and its current occupants, and the deformation and dislocation of aircraft structure and its contents. The fifth factor relates to the occupants attempts to egress the aircraft before suffering additional injuries not directly resulting from the dynamic portion of the crash. In order to survive a crash it is first necessary to provide a living space for the occupants during the dynamic portion of the crash. If the space is crushed or punctured, the chances of survival fall drastically. This factor is container. Now if the occupants have been provided with adequate living space, the next series of questions should deal with the restraint of the crew and its passengers and equipment and components around them. Occupants of any moving vehicle must be protected from injuring collisions with in the vehicle, for example being thrown against the sides of the living space or having objects such as cargo or equipment thrown at them. The strength of all restraints should be sufficient to prevent injury at the force levels which can be expected during the most severe but survivable crash. The investigator should examine all restraints system failures to determine if there failure contributed to injuries experienced by the crew or passengers. The deceleration forces created during a crash may be high enough to cause fatal or serious injuries, even if a safe living space, adequate crew and passenger restraints, and a delethalized flailing envelope are provided. Since crew and passenger bodies are not strongly attached to the airframe, the design of the aircraft structure and seeds may cause the acceleration forces experienced by the crew and passengers to be either amplified or attenuated. A soft deep seat cushion can greatly amplified the vertical Gs experienced by someone sitting in the seat. The deep seat cushion deforms at high loads absorbing energy as it gives can greatly reduce the vertical crash loads to which a seat occupant is subjected. Hopefully, the designers will build a secure box around the crew and passengers and secure them to it. Although we may be able to restrain the torso, it is normally impractical to secure the head and limbs of the crew and passengers. The volume through which the unrestrained extremities can be expected to move shouldve been the legalized to the maximum degree possible. Obstructions which could cause injury should either remove from within the flailing envelope or padded to reduce the severity or probability of injury. This is the environment that the creep method covers. All too commonly, crew or passengers survived the dynamic portion of the crash, only to suffer additional injuries or death when they are unable to safely exit the aircraft in a timely manner. The two primary factors in the causation of fatalities during otherwise survivable crashes is, post-crash fire and inability to quickly exit the damaged aircraft. Fire is the most significant post-crash hazard by a long shot. Not only can the fire kill and injure directly through heat, the toxic fumes and smoke produced when material and the aircraft interior burn are more often the direct cause of death. This post-crash condition is a top priority in controlling to prevent death. Design of airplane exits is predicated on the normal parked attitude and configuration. Obviously, this is not always the case. Sometimes occupants will have to exit from an airplane that is an abnormal attitude and perhaps in a very unusual configuration. Part 125 airplanes have specific emergency exit acquirements levied on them, many general aviation airplanes have only one exit which can be easily jammed in the airplane ends up inverted. In conclusion, nobody is expert on all types of structural failures. With so many different variables, it takes a highly detailed investigator to pinpoint what kind of failure causes a crash. And without a systematic approach of investigation of a crash, the investigators are left with an accident that is difficult to determine whether or not the occupants should have survived the impact.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Reaction Paper Environment Essay Example

Reaction Paper Environment Paper Protocol could not be explained by balance of interest (alone), but more because of embedded symbolism Lads decision to pursue global environmental leadership, reinforced by the media and public opinion. The name Kyoto Protocol had also become a national symbol and Japans environmental policy identity. In general, I find that the factors behind Japans foreign policy on environment as identified by both articles rather similar and consistent. When reading both articles together, Japans initial efforts to become the global environmental deader as well as its subsequent slack were wallpapering. Japans Role in Kyoto Protocol On Japans initial efforts towards Kyoto Protocol, Oath explained that it stemmed from Japans quest to make a nonmilitary contribution (as constrained by the Japanese constitution) to international affairs. Both articles have identified that Japan had the ideal domestic and political factors (together with strong public support) in the earlier years that supported its initial efforts. Although in the later years, the international and domestic contexts were not favorable for Japan o promote the Kyoto agreement, Japan has taken painful and costly measure s to continue the Kyoto Protocol. Case Study: Japanese Foreign Economic policy, Grasp Week 9 (December 4) Reaction Paper (by CHOC How Yen, Constance; Student ID: 51138033) In addition, both articles also pointed out that the name of Kyoto Protocol (bearing the name of a ices of Japan) made it indispensable for Japanese government to take a global environmental leadership role in tackling the global environmental problem, including its decision o step forward with the EX. And the (small part) of the rest of the world, despise et the US has decided to withdraw from it. We will write a custom essay sample on Reaction Paper Environment specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Reaction Paper Environment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Reaction Paper Environment specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Ratification vs Implementation Tiebreaker also pointed out that ratification was quite different from implementation, which I find this point interesting. Ratification is highly visible with tangible reputation, while implementation is the outcome of countless lowered battles, which are quite technical and hidden from the public eyes. Indeed, the pacifications battle over implementation would be a more difficult recess. I wonder how the reduction targets could be implemented by distributing the targets among different domestic industries, in particular the stakeholders are in fact private business enterprises (which make it difficult for the Government to impose mandatory targets on them). Conclusion All in all, the role and efforts Of Japan in negotiating the Kyoto Protocol and the subsequent implementation battle could serve as a good case study for International Political Economy (PIPE), since many factors came into play and all were crucial n affecting Japans decision and approach to the matter. However, I am disappointed (or feel sad) to realize how these domestic factors could actually affect a countrys participation in environmental affairs. Ideally, each country should cooperate to solve this global problem for social justice.