Wednesday, August 26, 2020

The Etymology of Words and Their Histories

The Etymology of Words and Their Histories The derivation of a word alludes to its cause and chronicled improvement: that is, its soonest known use, its transmission starting with one language then onto the next, and its adjustments in structure and importance. Historical underpinnings is additionally the term for the part of phonetics that reviews word accounts. Whats the Difference Between a Definition and an Etymology? A definition mentions to us what a word means and how its utilized time permitting. A derivation reveals to us where a word originated from (regularly, however not generally, from another dialect) and what it used to mean. For instance, as indicated by The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the meaning of the word calamity is an event causing across the board obliteration and trouble; a disaster or a grave setback. Be that as it may, the historical underpinnings of the word catastrophe returns us to when individuals ordinarily accused extraordinary hardships for the impact of the stars. Catastrophe previously showed up in English in the late sixteenth century, without a moment to spare for Shakespeare to utilize the word in the play King Lear. It showed up by method of the Old Italian word disastro, which implied troublesome to ones stars. This more established, celestial feeling of catastrophe gets more clear when we study its Latin root word, astrum, which additionally shows up in our advanced star word space science. With the negative Latin prefix dis-(separated) added to astrum (star), the word (in Latin, Old Italian, and Middle French) passed on the possibility that a disaster could be followed to the malevolent impact of a star or planet (a definition that the word reference lets us know is presently old). Is the Etymology of a Word Its True Definition? Not in the least, however individuals once in a while attempt to make this contention. The word historical underpinnings is gotten from the Greek word etymon, which implies the genuine feeling of a word. Be that as it may, in actuality the first importance of a word is regularly unique in relation to its contemporary definition. The implications of numerous words have changed after some time, and more established faculties of a word may become extraordinary or vanish altogether from ordinary use. Catastrophe, for example, no longer methods the malevolent impact of a star or planet, similarly as think about no longer way to watch the stars. Lets take a gander at another model. Our English word pay is characterized by The American Heritage Dictionaryâ as fixed remuneration for administrations, paid to an individual all the time. Its historical underpinnings can be followed back 2,000 years to sal, the Latin word for salt. So whats the association among salt and pay? The Roman history specialist Pliny the Elder reveals to us that in Rome, a warrior was paid in salt, which in those days was broadly utilized as a food additive. In the end, this salarium came to connote a payment paid in any structure, generally cash. Indeed, even today the articulation deserving at least moderate respect demonstrates that youre trying sincerely and gaining your pay. Notwithstanding, this doesnt imply that salt is the genuine meaning of pay. Where Do Words Come From? New words have entered (and keep on entering) the English language from numerous points of view. Here are probably the most well-known techniques. BorrowingThe larger part of the words utilized in current English have been acquired from different dialects. Albeit the greater part of our jargon originates from Latin and Greek (regularly by method of other European dialects), English has acquired words from in excess of 300 unique dialects around the globe. Here are only a couple examples:futon (from the Japanese word for bedclothes, bedding)gorilla (Greek Gorillai, a clan of furry ladies, maybe of African origin)hamster (Middle High German hamastra)kangaroo (Aboriginal language of Guugu Yimidhirr, gangurru , alluding to a types of kangaroo)kink (Dutch, turn in a rope)moccasin (Native American Indian, Virginia Algonquian, likened to Powhatan mksn and Ojibwa makisin)molasses (Portuguese melaã §os, from Late Latin mellceum, from Latin mel, honey)muscle (Latin musculus, mouse)slogan (change of Scots slogorne, fight cry)smorgasbord (Swedish, actually bread and butter table)whiskey (Old Irish uisce, water, and bethad, of life)Clippin g or ShorteningSome new words are just abbreviated types of existing words, for example non mainstream from autonomous; test from assessment; influenza from flu, and fax from copy. CompoundingA new word may likewise be made by consolidating at least two existing words: fire motor, for instance, and babysitter.BlendsA mix, additionally called a portmanteau word,â is a word framed by blending the sounds and implications of at least two different words. Models incorporate sulked, from mo(tor) ped(al), and early lunch, from br(eakfast) (l)unch.Conversion or Functional ShiftNew words are regularly framed by changing a current word starting with one grammatical feature then onto the next. For instance, advancements in innovation have supported the change of the things arrange, Google, andâ microwaveâ into verbs.Transfer of Proper NounsSometimes the names of individuals, spots, and things become summed up jargon words. For example, the thing free thinker was gotten from the name of an American cattleman, Samuel Augustus Maverick. The saxophone was named after Sax, the last name of a nineteenth century Belgian family that made melodic instruments.Neologisms or Creat ive CoinagesNow and afterward, new items or procedures motivate the production of completely new words. Such neologisms are typically brief, never at any point making it into a word reference. By and by, some have suffered, for instance quark (instituted by author James Joyce), galumph (Lewis Carroll), ibuprofen (initially a trademark), grok (Robert A. Heinlein). Impersonation of SoundsWords are likewise made by likeness in sound, naming things by mimicking the sounds that are related with them: boo, bow-goodness, tinkle, click. For what reason Should We Care About Word Histories? On the off chance that a words historical background isn't equivalent to its definition, for what reason would it be a good idea for us to think at all about word accounts? Indeed, for a certain something, seeing how words have created can show us a lot about our social history. Moreover, examining the accounts of natural words can assist us with concluding the implications of new words, along these lines enhancing our vocabularies. At long last, word stories are frequently both engaging and provocative. To put it plainly, as any youth can let you know, words are entertaining.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Multilateralism and Regionalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Multilateralism and Regionalism - Essay Example The majority of these territorial understandings stayed inside the idea of facilitated commerce territories and the vast majority of them depended on a multilateralization of reciprocal understandings or associations. The mushrooming of activities conceived an offspring an excessive number of bargains and foundations of financial reconciliation which despite everything exist, except never were a triumph, in light of the fact that provincial zones were imagined as likelier locales for import-subbing industrialization than little national markets. Not many of these local groupings were fruitful in encouraging more liberated exchange or more profound financial joining between accomplices. In the creating scene territorial understandings were viewed as a methods for decreasing reliance on monetary ties with the entrepreneur center district. The hypothesis of similar preferred position, positively, contends that unhampered trade between nations will expand the aggregate sum of world yield if each nation will in general concentration in those products that it can create at a nearly lower cost contrasted with conceivable exchanging accomplices. Each nation at that point will exchange a few of those lower-cost products with different countries for merchandise that can be framed somewhere else more monetarily than at home. At long last, with organized commerce among countries, all nations will find that their utilization potential lean back outside their residential creation potential. Similar bit of leeway and its extensions from a hypothetical point of view have not brought about any significant debilitating of the general quality of this group of hypothesis nor of its outcome, an organized commerce framework. The basis with the expectation of complimentary exchange is hence very old. Building his case on the increases from exchange to be had from specialization mirroring the division of work, Smith had the pith of the contention right. Be that as it may, it was left to David Ricardo (expanding on James Mill) to secure the case officially. Ricardo utilized a stripped-down model-just one factor of creation with steady profitability of work in two merchandise, however with relative efficiency between the products distinctive across two nations to show that the two nations could pick up from exchange by means of specialization. The Ricardian investigation suggested that this specialized chance of picking up from exchange would be acknowledged whether an arrangement of organized commerce were embraced in an institutional setting where costs guided asset designation. However, the logically agreeable evidences of exchange's advantages that we current financial analysts request are the craftsmans hip of scholars working in the twentieth century. David Ricardo equipped backer of organized commerce with the hypothesis of near bit of leeway. His fundamental supposition that was that each financial worth was made by work (the work hypothesis of significant worth) and a conviction that the three essential variables of creation (land, work, and capital) couldn't move across national limits. Ricardo and different financial analysts, in any case, were keen on realizing what law administers the dissemination of national salary among the variables creation, and what the determinants of universal exchange designs are. Heckscher - Ohlin approach The old style Ricardo accepted, truly or basically, a solitary factor of creation. Clearly, that supposition blocked contemplations, for example, the results of fluctuating info extents and of changes in exchange on the conveyance

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Out, Damned (Gravy) Spot! Richmond Writing

Out, Damned (Gravy) Spot! Richmond Writing Image courtesy of Make your Own Bar-B-Q Sign Imagine an orator making a speech after a formal dinner, and imagine the speaker doing so very well. In the end, however, a large segment of the audience never recalls the content because of the large gravy spot on the speakers tie or blouse. The speaker lost the audience. So what are the sorts of small errors that make otherwise sympathetic readers stop reading? A general list may be nigh impossible, but I will take a stab at what most perturbs academic readers of student prose. In doing so, I wont focus on the fatal flaws of novice writing: sweeping generalizations, sentence fragments, lack of support for claims. Confused words. One does not hear the difference, in speech, between the homonyms here and hear, but in writing, such gaffs make the writer look unprofessional, if not ignorant. See our Centers list of Commonly Confused Words. Overstatement. One study or source does not conclusive proof make, even if it is a valid source or study. Academics expect an abundance of supporting evidence, including admissions as to where more study may be needed or the limitations of a source. One might write the 2011 study only considered effects on male college students at private universities as a way to present such data. Names.  Student writers often use both first and last names for sources. It may be appropriate to cite a full name on first reference or for clarity when, say, two Smiths have been cited. But in most cases, in-text sources need only a last-name reference. A graver (gravier?) spot is to misspell the name of a source. I once had a reader of an article stop on page one when I did this, back in grad school. He said after that I did not trust your prose any longer. Ouch. Format errors. APA, MLA, Chicago, and similar are not systems of fiendish torture. Writers use them to get work into a format needed for a particular journal or conference proceeding. I frequently see errors with a misplaced parenthesis, italics and double quotations both used for titles of sources, and the like. A first cousin of this problem can be adding blank lines between paragraphs, odd indents, and other mechanical gaffs. When in doubtask the prof! These spots come to mind right away. Got more? Let me know in the comments section.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

A Rose For Emily Psychoanalytic Theory Essay - 1225 Words

Conscious and the unconscious psychological processes is all part of what is studied to determine and analysis a person’s emotional development such as their ability to function as a healthy adult in society. From birth to young adulthood, individuals encounter people, parents, teacher and friends/classmates. Every individual that a person encounters helps to develop a person’s growth into adulthood. Psychoanalytic theory in â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner through the protagonist, Emily, who displays some psychological problems of, fear of intimacy which connects to Erik Erikson Ages of Emotional Development, intimacy vs isolation, fear of abandonment which also can be connected to his trust vs mistrust (AED), and Oedipal fixation†¦show more content†¦For example, â€Å"no visitor had passed since she ceased giving china-painting lessons eight or ten years earlier† Faulkner (p. 304). Therefore, she lacked the full psychological intima cy development, causing unhealthy relationships with others. For one thing, there was no mention of her mother or her having any interaction as a child with anyone other than her father. This possibly leads to her not being able to form healthy relationships because of her lack of involvement with others. In other words, Emily should have developed the ability to communicate successfully to her community and form a positive relationship. Thus, the isolation Emily suffered from spending most, if not all, her time with her father caused inability to connect to others independently. Emily’s fear of intimacy and fear of abandonment are related so closely they overlap. In addition, the protagonist is consumed with fear of abandonment according to Erikson stage of trust vs mistrust, Erikson AED states that Emily should â€Å"come to trust that basic needs will be met by caregivers and that the world is a predictable and safe place† (Trawick-Smith p. 52). Tyson explains fear of abandonment as â€Å"is the unwarranted nagging belief that our friends and loved ones are going to desert us (p. 84). An Example of Emily’s fear of trust is â€Å"within three days Homer Barron was back in town. A neighbor saw the Negro man admit himShow MoreRelatedA Psychological Reading of A Rose for Emily Essay2883 Words   |  12 PagesFreud and Faulkner A psychoanalytic Reading of â€Å"A Rose for Emily† Abstract Undoubtedly Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis. He was an influential thinker of the early twentieth century who elaborated the theory that the mind is a complex energy-system and the structural investigation of which is the proper province of psychology. Freud articulated and refined the concepts of the unconscious, infantile sexuality and repression and he proposed tripartite

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Notes on Society Free Essays

Chapter 10 Social Stratification: a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy, it is a trait of society, found in all society’s, carries over from generation to generation and creates systems and class Social Mobility: a change in position within the social hierarchy Caste System: Closed system based on ascription, or birth, little or no mobility, shapes a persons entire life, occupation and marriage. Found in traditional Agrarian societies. Class System: social stratification based on both birth, ascription and individual achievement, meritocracy. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes on Society or any similar topic only for you Order Now Meritocracy: Social stratification based on personal merit Status Consistency: the degree of uniformity in a person’s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality. Example: A college professor with advanced degrees enjoys high prestige but only earns a modest wage. Structural Social Mobility: a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts Ideology: cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality Davis Moore thesis: A system of unequal rewards is necessary to place talented people in the right jobs and to motivate them to work hard. the functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society Blue Collar occupations: lower prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor White Collar occupations: Higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity Socioeconomic Status, SES: a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality Conspicuous Consumption: Buying and using products because of the â€Å"statement† they make about social position Chapter 11 Income: earnings from work or investments Wealth: The total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts Intragenerational Social Mobility: a change in social position occurring during a person’s lifetime. Intergenerational Social Mobility: upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents Feminization of Poverty: the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor Chapter 12 Global Stratification: Patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole High Income Country: nations with the highest overall standards of living Middle Income Country: nations with the standard of living that is about the average for the world Low Income Country: nations with low standard of living in which most people are poor Modernization Theory: is a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences among nations Dependency Theory: explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor societies by rich ones How to cite Notes on Society, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Comparing Cct and Rebt a Case Study free essay sample

George is a 40-year-old senior executive in a large company, a position he has only recently taken up. He was referred to counselling by his general practitioner to explore his mood swings. He has been married for nearly 5 years to a ‘warm and wonderful person’. There were no children yet, and the couple was wondering about the right time for having children. This has been an area of disagreement between George and his wife and has led to a number of heated arguments between the two of them. George described himself as fairly conservative and not a risk taker, and said that sometimes he couldn’t believe he had accepted a job in such a large company. On questioning, George said that he sometimes felt OK and reasonably good about himself, but that these good feelings frequently gave way to incredible doubts and feelings of hopelessness, that he often felt ‘not good enough’ and ‘not worthy’. We will write a custom essay sample on Comparing Cct and Rebt a Case Study or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He had experienced these feelings before, but he felt they were more intense and more frequent since moving to his current position. He commented, â€Å"I’m not the person I thought I would turn out to be† and â€Å"I’m disappointed in myself†. He reports being able to keep it together at work and that his work is not suffering at this stage. He has become more restless and irritable with people, especially in social situations that he describes as excruciating and pointless. The next section discusses and compares Client-Centred Therapy (CCT) and Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) as two theoretical approaches to the case study of George. Theoretical approaches Client-Centred Therapy (CCT) Client- Centred Therapy (CCT) was founded by Carl Rogers and originally developed in the 1940’s as a reaction against psychoanalytical therapy. CCT is grounded on a positive view of human nature and humanity and it is based on the premise that the client has an inherent capacity to move away from maladjustment toward psychological health (Corsini Wedding 2008). It is an approach to counselling and psychotherapy that places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, and the counsellor takes a non-directive role (Rogers, 1942). Rogers regarded the three core conditions of empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence as â€Å"necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change† (Rogers, 1957) these form the characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in CCT. Empathy – The ability to enter the client’s own world by stepping into their shoes and being with them from moment to moment, Rogers describes 3 mpathy as: â€Å"entering the private perceptual world of the other and becoming thoroughly at home in it†. (Rogers 1957). Unconditional Positive Regard Accepting and respecting the client with a non-judgemental attitude at all times and being warm and caring no matter what the client may disclose. The counsellor is genuinely open with the client and in touch with one’s own feelings and modelling that way of being. This allows the client to see the counsellor as a real person and this in turn can enable the client to be more honest with the counsellor. Nelson-Jones, 2010) Adopting these three core conditions during the therapeutic process, the client can tell their story in their way, and they can come to their own conclusions and reach decisions on how best to lead their lives. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) REBT was developed in 1950’s by Albert Ellis. He believed the cause of anxiety and stress aren’t necessarily the bad experiences rather it is the negative things that we tell ourselves repeatedly until we believe them to be true. Ellis developed an ABC framework to show people how their negative thoughts lead to negative behaviour (Ellis, 1996): Activating event Belief Irrational thought e. g. Aliens have landed in the garden, they are going to eat me; Consequence Irrational thought e. g. fear, anxiety, panic attack; Rational thought e. g. I’m going to go back to sleep 4 Rational thought e. g. its next doors cat Something happens e. g. you hear a noise in the night When an undesirable emotional consequence occurs, such as severe anxiety, usually the person’s irrational beliefs are involved. When these beliefs are effectively disputed, by challenging them rationally and behaviourally, the disturbed consequences are reduced (Corsini Wedding 2008). REBT is a direct and solution-orientated therapy that focuses on resolving specific problems. It offers the client and counsellor a structured approach, where goals are set to overcome the specific issue within agreed set of sessions. REBT also teaches the importance of the client practising all that has been taught in the session, in between their counselling sessions, usually homework is given based around the issue they are working on.